BIRD SONGS AND CALLS WITH SPECTROGRAMS OF SOUTHERN TUSCANY


The main goal of this web site is collecting recordings of bird songs and calls in a restricted and well-defined geographic area: a part of Southern Tuscany (Toscana - Italy). Recently I have added some cuts recorded from other parts of Italy or even abroad, but the focus of this site is always on the local birds. For each bird a great effort is made to add different vocalizations: songs, flight calls, alarm calls etc. These pages will be frequently updated with different vocalizations of already recorded species or with songs and calls of "new" birds. Every recorded song or call is submitted to spectrographic analysis; the resulting spectrograms are shown. The spectrogram (sonogram or sonagram) is a graphical representation of song frequency and amplitude changes over time. This technique allows a more efficient and valuable study of bird vocalizations: describing bird calls or songs with a unique spectrogram is far better than using subjective onomatopoeic or phonetic renderings. See bioacoustics page for more details.

Certain species of birds have evolved an elaborate communication system of different calls, each having a specific function within an observable behavioral/environmental situation. Others use voice much less frequently and often on a more primitive level. However, every utterance has to be evaluated in relation to its role in behavior, communication, location as well as to its linkage with sex, physiological state and age. Therefore all recordings are accompanied by documentation about species identification, behaviour, habitat, time and date, exact locality, sex and age (when possible).
The section of this web site called studies is dedicated to a deeper study of some species. Listen to bird songs and check the corresponding sonograms in the songs and spectrograms page. Technical details are described in the materials and methods page.
Suggestions, criticisms and contributions to this work are all welcome! Contact the author or fill the feedback form.

New species added: Aythya ferina, Carduelis spinus, Chlidonias leucopterus, Cygnus olor, Emberiza melanocephala, Falco naumanni, Haliaeetus albicilla, Iduna pallida, Jinx torquilla, Oenanthe pleshanka, Panurus biarmicus, Pastor roseus, Pelecanus crispus, Pelecanus onocrotalus, Podiceps nigricollis, Sylvia nisoria. Species updated: Cisticola juncidis, Troglodytes troglodytes. Check also in specific studies the works about Stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), Strigiformes and Grey heron (Ardea cinerea).

Last modified: 10/August/2016 === [119257 visits since 11/october/2004]

To date the following 229 species have been recorded: alpine accentor (prunella collaris - sordone); alpine swift (apus melba - rondone alpino); avocet (recurvirostra avosetta - avocetta); bald ibis (geronticus eremita - ibis eremita); bar-tailed godwit (limosa lapponica - pittima minore); barn owl (tyto alba - barbagianni); barred warbler (sylvia nisoria - bigia padovana); bearded reedling (panurus biarmicus - basettino); bee eater (merops apiaster - gruccione); bittern (botaurus stellaris - tarabuso); blackbird (turdus merula - merlo); blackcap (sylvia atricapilla - capinera); black-headed bunting (emberiza melanocephala - zigolo capinero); black-headed gull (larus ridibundus - gabbiano comune); black kite (milvus migrans - nibbio bruno); black-necked grebe (podiceps nigricollis - svasso piccolo); black redstart (phoenicurus ochruros - codirosso spazzacamino); black-tailed godwit (limosa limosa - pittima reale); black tern (chlidonias niger - mignattino); black-winged stilt (himantopus himantopus - cavaliere d'Italia); black woodpecker (dryocopus martius - picchio nero); blue rock thrush (monticola solitarius - passero solitario); blue tit (parus caeruleus - cinciarella); bullfinch (pyrrhula pyrrhula - ciuffolotto); buzzard (buteo buteo - poiana); calandra lark (melanocorypha calandra - calandra); carrion crow (corvus corone - cornacchia nera); caspian gull (larus cachinnans - gabbiano pontico); cattle egret (bubulcus ibis - airone guardabuoi); cetti's warbler (cettia cetti - usignuolo di fiume); chaffinch (fringilla coelebs - fringuello); chiffchaff (phylloscopus collybita - lui piccolo); cirl bunting (emberiza cirlus - zigolo nero); coal tit (periparus ater - cincia mora); collared dove (streptopelia decaocto - tortora dal collare); collared flycatcher (ficedula albicollis - balia dal collare); collared pratincole (glareola pratincola - pernice di mare); common sandpiper (actitis hypoleucos - piro piro piccolo); common tern (sterna hirundo - sterna comune); coot (fulica atra - folaga); cormorant (phalacrocorax carbo - cormorano); corn bunting (emberiza calandra - strillozzo); cough (pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax - gracchio corallino); crane (grus grus - gru); crested lark (galerida cristata - cappellaccia); crossbill (loxia curvirostra - crociere); cuckoo (cuculus canorus - cuculo); curlew (numenius arquata - chiurlo); curlew sandpiper (calidris ferruginea - piovanello comune); dalmatian pelican (pelecanus crispus - pellicano riccio); dartford warbler (sylvia undata - magnanina); dunlin (calidris alpina - piovanello pancianera); dunnock (prunella modularis - passera scopaiola); feral pigeon (columba livia domestica - piccione domestico); ferruginous duck (aythya nyroca - moretta tabaccata); firecrest (regulus ignicapillus - fiorrancino); garden warbler (sylvia borin - beccafico); garganey (anas querquedula - marzaiola); glossy ibis (plegadis falcinellus - mignattaio); goldcrest (regulus regulus - regolo); golden oriole (oriolus oriolus - rigogolo); goldfinch (carduelis carduelis - cardellino); great crested grebe (podiceps cristatus - svasso maggiore); great reed warbler (acrocephalus arundinaceus - cannareccione); great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius - cuculo dal ciuffo); great spotted woodpecker (dendrocopos major - picchio rosso maggiore); great tit (parus major - cinciallegra); great white egret (egretta alba - airone bianco maggiore); greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber - fenicottero); green sandpiper (tringa ochropus - piro piro culbianco); green woodpecker (picus viridis - picchio verde); greenfinch (carduelis chloris - verdone); greenshank (tringa nebularia - pantana); grey-headed woodpecker (picus canus - picchio cenerino); grey heron (ardea cinerea - airone cenerino); grey partridge (perdix perdix - starna); grey plover (pluvialis squatarola - pivieressa); grey wagtail (motacilla cinerea - ballerina gialla); greylag goose (anser anser - oca selvatica); gull-billed tern (gelochelidon nilotica - sterna zampenere); hawfinch (coccothraustes coccothraustes - frosone); hen harrier (circus cyaneus - albanella reale); herring gull (larus argentatus - gabbiano reale); hobby (falco subbuteo - lodolaio); hooded crow (corvus cornix cornix - cornacchia grigia); honey buzzard (pernis apivorus - falco pecchiaiolo); hoopoe (upupa epops - upupa); house martin (delichon urbica - balestruccio); house sparrow (passer domesticus - passera europea); icterine warbler (hippolais icterina - canapino maggiore); italian sparrow (passer domesticus italiae - passera d'Italia); jackdaw (corvus monedula - taccola); jay (garrulus glandarius - ghiandaia); kentish plover (charadrius alexandrinus - fratino); kestrel (falco tinnunculus - gheppio); kingfisher (alcedo atthis - martin pescatore); knot (calidris canutus - piovanello maggiore); lapwing (vanellus vanellus - pavoncella); lesser grey shrike (lanius minor - averla cenerina); lesser kestrel (falco naumanni - grillaio); lesser spotted woodpecker (dendrocopos minor - picchio rosso minore); lesser whitethroat (sylvia curruca - bigiarella); linnet (carduelis cannabina - fanello); little bittern (ixobrychus minutus - tarabusino); little crake (porzana parva - schiribilla); little egret (egretta garzetta - garzetta); little grebe (tachybaptus ruficollis - tuffetto); little owl (athene noctua - civetta); little ringed plover (charadrius dubius - corriere piccolo); little stint (calidris minuta - gambecchio); little tern (sterna albifrons - fraticello); long eared owl (asio otus - gufo comune); long-legged buzzard (buteo rufinus - poiana codabianca); long tailed tit (aegithalos caudatus - codibugnolo); magpie (pica pica - gazza); mallard (anas platyrhyncos); marsh harrier (circus aeruginosus - falco di palude); marsh tit (parus palustris - cincia bigia); meadow pipit (anthus pratensis - pispola); mediterranean gull (larus melanocephalus - gabbiano corallino); melodious warbler (hippolais polyglotta - canapino); middle spotted woodpecker (dendrocopos medius - picchio rosso mezzano); mistle thrush (turdus viscivorus - tordela); montagu's harrier (circus pygargus - albanella minore); moorhen (gallinula chloropus - gallinella d'acqua); moustached warbler (acrocephalus melanopogon - forapaglie castagnolo); mute swan (cygnus olor - cigno reale); night heron (nycticorax nycticorax - nitticora); nightingale (luscinia megarhynchos - usignuolo); nightjar (caprimulgus europaeus - succiacapre); nuthatch (sitta europaea - picchio muratore); olivaceous warbler (iduna pallida - canapino pallido); ortolan bunting (emberiza hortulana - ortolano); osprey (pandion haliaetus - falco pescatore); oystercatcher (haematopus ostralegus - beccaccia di mare); paddyfield warbler (acrocephalus agricola - cannaiola di jerdon); penduline tit (remiz pendulinus - pendolino); peregrine falcon (falco peregrinus - falco pellegrino); phaesant (phasianus colchicus - fagiano); pintail (anas acuta - codone); pied wheatear (oenanthe pleshanka - monachella dorsonero); pochard (aythya ferina - moriglione); purple heron (ardea purpurea - airone rosso); pygmy cormorant (phalacrocorax pygmeus - marangone minore); quail (coturnix coturnix - quaglia); raven (corvus corax - corvo imperiale); red kite (milvus milvus - nibbio reale); red-backed shrike (lanius collurio - averla piccola); red-breasted flycatcher (ficedula parva - pigliamosche pettirosso); red-footed falcon (falco vespertinus - falco cuculo); red-necked grebe (podiceps grisegena - svasso collorosso); red-rumped swallow (hirundo daurica - rondine rossiccia); redshank (tringa totanus - pettegola); redstart (phoenicurus phoenicurus - codirosso); reed bunting (emberiza schoeniclus - migliarino di palude); reed warbler (acrocephalus scirpaceus - cannaiola); ring ouzel (turdus torquatus - merlo dal collare); ringed plover(charadrius hiaticula - corriere grosso); robin (erithacus rubecula - pettirosso); rock thrush (monticola saxatilis - codirossone); roller (coracias garrulus - ghiandaia marina); rook (corvus frugilegus - corvo comune); rose-coloured starling (pastor roseus - storno roseo); sand martin (riparia riparia - topino); sanderling (calidris alba - piovanello tridattilo); sandwich tern (sterna sandwichensis - beccapesci); sardinian warbler (sylvia melanocephala - occhiocotto); savi's warbler (locustella luscinioides - salciaiola); sedge warbler (acrocephalus shoenobaenus - forapaglie); scops owl (otus scops - assiolo); serin (serinus serinus - verzellino); short-toed eagle (circaetus gallicus - biancone); short-toed lark (calandrella brachydactyla - calandrella); shelduck (tadorna tadorna - volpoca); short-toed treecreeper (certhia brachydactyla - rampichino); shoveler (anas clypeata - mestolone); siskin (carduelis spinus - lucherino); skylark (alauda arvensis - allodola); snipe (gallinago gallinago - beccaccino); sombre tit (poecile lugubris - cincia dalmatina); song thrush (turdus philomelos - tordo bottaccio); spanish sparrow (passer hispaniolensis - passera sarda); spoonbill (platalea leucorodia - spatola); spotted flycatcher (muscicapa striata - pigliamosche); spotted redshank (tringa erythropus - totano moro); squacco heron (ardeola ralloides - sgarza ciuffetto); starling (sturnus vulgaris - storno); stock dove (columba oenas - colombella); stonechat (saxicola torquata - saltimpalo); stone curlew (burhinus oedicnemus - occhione); subalpine warbler (sylvia cantillans - sterpazzolina); swallow (hirundo rustica - rondine); swift (apus apus - rondone); syrian woodpecker (dendrocopos syriacus - picchio rosso di siria); tawny owl (strix aluco - allocco); tawny pipit (anthus campestris - calandro); teal (anas crecca - alzavola); thrush nightingale (luscinia luscinia - usignuolo maggiore); tree pipit (anthus trivialis - prispolone); tree sparrow (passer montanus - passera mattugia); treecreeper (certhia familiaris - rampichino alpestre); turnstone (arenaria interpres - voltapietre); turtle dove (streptopelia turtur - tortora); zitting cisticola (cisticola juncidis - beccamoschino); water pipit (anthus spinoletta - spioncello); water rail (rallus aquaticus - porciglione); western bonelli's warbler (phylloscopus bonelli - luž bianco); wheatear (oenanthe oenanthe - culbianco); wigeon (anas penelope - fischione); whimbrel (numenius phaeopus - chiurlo piccolo); whiskered tern (chlidonias hybrida - mignattino piombato); white-fronted goose (anser albifrons - oca lombardella); white pelican (pelecanus onocrotalus - pellicano comune); white stork (ciconia ciconia - cicogna bianca); white-tailed eagle (haliaeetus albicilla - aquila di mare); whitethroat (sylvia communis - sterpazzola); white wagtail (motacilla alba - ballerina bianca); white-winged tern (chlidonias leucopterus - mignattino alibianche); willow warbler (phylloscopus trochilus - lui grosso); wood sandpiper (tringa glareola - piro piro boschereccio); wood warbler (phylloscopus sibilatrix - lui verde); woodchat shrike (lanius senator - averla capirossa); woodlark (lullula arborea - tottavilla); woodpigeon (columba palumbus - colombaccio); wren (troglodytes troglodytes - scricciolo); wryneck (jinx torquilla - torcicollo); yellowhammer (emberiza citrinella - zigolo giallo); yellow wagtail (motacilla flava - cutrettola). Listen to bird songs and check the corresponding sonograms in the songs and spectrograms page.

return to top