BIRD SONGS AND CALLS WITH SPECTROGRAMS OF SOUTHERN TUSCANY


The main goal of this web site is collecting recordings of bird songs and calls in a restricted and well-defined geographic area: a part of Southern Tuscany (Toscana - Italy). Recently I have added some cuts recorded from other parts of Italy or even abroad, but the focus of this site is always on the local birds. For each bird a great effort is made to add different vocalizations: songs, flight calls, alarm calls etc. These pages will be frequently updated with different vocalizations of already recorded species or with songs and calls of "new" birds. Every recorded song or call is submitted to spectrographic analysis; the resulting spectrograms are shown. The spectrogram (sonogram or sonagram) is a graphical representation of song frequency and amplitude changes over time. This technique allows a more efficient and valuable study of bird vocalizations: describing bird calls or songs with a unique spectrogram is far better than using subjective onomatopoeic or phonetic renderings. See bioacoustics page for more details.

Certain species of birds have evolved an elaborate communication system of different calls, each having a specific function within an observable behavioral/environmental situation. Others use voice much less frequently and often on a more primitive level. However, every utterance has to be evaluated in relation to its role in behavior, communication, location as well as to its linkage with sex, physiological state and age. Therefore all recordings are accompanied by documentation about species identification, behaviour, habitat, time and date, exact locality, sex and age (when possible).
The section of this web site called studies is dedicated to a deeper study of some species. Listen to bird songs and check the corresponding sonograms in the songs and spectrograms page. Technical details are described in the materials and methods page.
Suggestions, criticisms and contributions to this work are all welcome! Contact the author or fill the feedback form.

New species added: Aythya nyroca, Porzana parva, Riparia riparia. Species updated: Charadrius dubius, Cuculus canorus, Merops apiaster, Pluvialis squatarola, Strix aluco. Check also in specific studies the works about Stone curlew (Burhinus oedicnemus), Cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis) and Grey heron (Ardea cinerea).

Last modified: 17/November/2014 === [103892 visits since 11/october/2004]

To date the following 171 species have been recorded: alpine accentor (prunella collaris - sordone); alpine swift (apus melba - rondone alpino); avocet (recurvirostra avosetta - avocetta); bald ibis (geronticus eremita - ibis eremita); bar-tailed godwit (limosa lapponica - pittima minore); barn owl (tyto alba - barbagianni); bee eater (merops apiaster - gruccione); bittern (botaurus stellaris - tarabuso); blackbird (turdus merula - merlo); blackcap (sylvia atricapilla - capinera); black-headed gull (larus ridibundus - gabbiano comune); black kite (milvus migrans - nibbio bruno); black redstart (phoenicurus ochruros - codirosso spazzacamino); black winged stilt (himantopus himantopus - cavaliere d'Italia); blue rock thrush (monticola solitarius - passero solitario); blue tit (parus caeruleus - cinciarella); bullfinch (pyrrhula pyrrhula - ciuffolotto); buzzard (buteo buteo - poiana); calandra lark (melanocorypha calandra - calandra); carrion crow (corvus corone - cornacchia nera); cattle egret (bubulcus ibis - airone guardabuoi); cetti's warbler (cettia cetti - usignuolo di fiume); chaffinch (fringilla coelebs - fringuello); chiffchaff (phylloscopus collybita - lui piccolo); cirl bunting (emberiza cirlus - zigolo nero); coal tit (periparus ater - cincia mora); collared dove (streptopelia decaocto - tortora dal collare); common sandpiper (actitis hypoleucos - piro piro piccolo); common tern (sterna hirundo - sterna comune); coot (fulica atra - folaga); comorant (phalacrocorax carbo - cormorano); corn bunting (emberiza calandra - strillozzo); crane (grus grus - gru); crested lark (galerida cristata - cappellaccia); crossbill (loxia curvirostra - crociere); cuckoo (cuculus canorus - cuculo); curlew (numenius arquata - chiurlo); dartford warbler (sylvia undata - magnanina); dunlin (calidris alpina - piovanello pancianera); dunnock (prunella modularis - passera scopaiola); fan tailed warbler (cisticola juncidis - beccamoschino); firecrest (regulus ignicapillus - fiorrancino); ferruginous duck (aythya nyroca - moretta tabaccata); garden warbler (sylvia borin - beccafico); garganey (anas querquedula - marzaiola); goldcrest (regulus regulus - regolo); golden oriole (oriolus oriolus - rigogolo); goldfinch (carduelis carduelis - cardellino); great crested grebe (podiceps cristatus - svasso maggiore); great reed warbler (acrocephalus arundinaceus - cannareccione); great spotted cuckoo (clamator glandarius - cuculo dal ciuffo); great spotted woodpecker (dendrocopos major - picchio rosso maggiore); great tit (parus major - cinciallegra); great white egret (egretta alba - airone bianco maggiore); greater flamingo (phoenicopterus ruber - fenicottero); green sandpiper (tringa ochropus - piro piro culbianco); green woodpecker (picus viridis - picchio verde); greenfinch (carduelis chloris - verdone); greenshank (tringa nebularia - pantana); grey heron (ardea cinerea - airone cenerino); grey plover (pluvialis squatarola - pivieressa); grey wagtail (motacilla cinerea - ballerina gialla); greylag goose (anser anser - oca selvatica); gull-billed tern (gelochelidon nilotica - sterna zampenere); hawfinch (coccothraustes coccothraustes - frosone); hen harrier (circus cyaneus - albanella reale); herring gull (larus argentatus - gabbiano reale); hobby (falco subbuteo - lodolaio); hooded crow (corvus cornix cornix - cornacchia grigia); honey buzzard (pernis apivorus - falco pecchiaiolo); hoopoe (upupa epops - upupa); house martin (delichon urbica - balestruccio); house sparrow (passer domesticus - passera europea); italian sparrow (passer domesticus italiae - passera d'Italia); jackdaw (corvus monedula - taccola); jay (garrulus glandarius - ghiandaia); kestrel (falco tinnunculus - gheppio); kingfisher (alcedo atthis - martin pescatore); knot (calidris canutus - piovanello maggiore); lapwing (vanellus vanellus - pavoncella); lesser grey shrike (lanius minor - averla cenerina); lesser spotted woodpecker (dendrocopos minor - picchio rosso minore); lesser whitethroat (sylvia curruca - bigiarella); linnet (carduelis cannabina - fanello); little bittern (ixobrychus minutus - tarabusino); little crake (porzana parva - schiribilla); little egret (egretta garzetta - garzetta); little grebe (tachybaptus ruficollis - tuffetto); little owl (athene noctua - civetta); little ringed plover (charadrius dubius - corriere piccolo); little stint (calidris minuta - gambecchio); little tern (sterna albifrons - fraticello); long eared owl (asio otus - gufo comune); long tailed tit (aegithalos caudatus - codibugnolo); magpie (pica pica - gazza); mallard (anas platyrhyncos); marsh tit (parus palustris - cincia bigia); meadow pipit (anthus pratensis - pispola); melodious warbler (hippolais polyglotta - canapino); montagu's harrier (circus pygargus - albanella minore); moorhen (gallinula chloropus - gallinella d'acqua); moustached warbler (acrocephalus melanopogon - forapaglie castagnolo); night heron (nycticorax nycticorax - nitticora); nightingale (luscinia megarhynchos - usignuolo); nightjar (caprimulgus europaeus - succiacapre); nuthatch (sitta europaea - picchio muratore); ortolan bunting (emberiza hortulana - ortolano); osprey (pandion haliaetus - falco pescatore); oystercatcher (haematopus ostralegus - beccaccia di mare); penduline tit (remiz pendulinus - pendolino); peregrine falcon (falco peregrinus - falco pellegrino); phaesant (phasianus colchicus - fagiano); pintail (anas acuta - codone); purple heron (ardea purpurea - airone rosso); quail (coturnix coturnix - quaglia); red kite (milvus milvus - nibbio reale); red-backed shrike (lanius collurio - averla piccola); red-rumped swallow (hirundo daurica - rondine rossiccia); redshank (tringa totanus - pettegola); redstart (phoenicurus phoenicurus - codirosso); reed bunting (emberiza schoeniclus - migliarino di palude); reed warbler (acrocephalus scirpaceus - cannaiola); ringed plover(charadrius hiaticula - corriere grosso); robin (erithacus rubecula - pettirosso); rock thrush (monticola saxatilis - codirossone); roller (coracias garrulus - ghiandaia marina); sand martin (riparia riparia - topino); sanderling (calidris alba - piovanello tridattilo); sandwich tern (sterna sandwichensis - beccapesci); sardinian warbler (sylvia melanocephala - occhiocotto); scops owl (otus scops - assiolo); serin (serinus serinus - verzellino); short-toed eagle (circaetus gallicus - biancone); short-toed lark (calandrella brachydactyla - calandrella); shelduck (tadorna tadorna - volpoca); short-toed treecreeper (certhia brachydactyla - rampichino); skylark (alauda arvensis - allodola); snipe (gallinago gallinago - beccaccino); song thrush (turdus philomelos - tordo bottaccio); spotted flycatcher (muscicapa striata - pigliamosche); spotted redshank (tringa erythropus - totano moro); squacco heron (ardeola ralloides - sgarza ciuffetto); starling (sturnus vulgaris - storno); stonechat (saxicola torquata - saltimpalo); stone curlew (burhinus oedicnemus - occhione); subalpine warbler (sylvia cantillans - sterpazzolina); swallow (hirundo rustica - rondine); swift (apus apus - rondone); tawny owl (strix aluco - allocco); tawny pipit (anthus campestris - calandro); teal (anas crecca - alzavola); tree sparrow (passer montanus - passera mattugia); turnstone (arenaria interpres - voltapietre); turtle dove (streptopelia turtur - tortora); water pipit (anthus spinoletta - spioncello); water rail (rallus aquaticus - porciglione); wigeon (anas penelope - fischione); whimbrel (numenius phaeopus - chiurlo piccolo); whitethroat (sylvia communis - sterpazzola); white-fronted goose (anser albifrons - oca lombardella); white wagtail (motacilla alba - ballerina bianca); willow warbler (phylloscopus trochilus - lui grosso); wood sandpiper (tringa glareola - piro piro boschereccio); wood warbler (phylloscopus sibilatrix - lui verde); woodchat shrike (lanius senator - averla capirossa); woodlark (lullula arborea - tottavilla); woodpigeon (columba palumbus - colombaccio); wren (troglodytes troglodytes - scricciolo); yellowhammer (emberiza citrinella - zigolo giallo); yellow wagtail (motacilla flava - cutrettola). Listen to bird songs and check the corresponding sonograms in the songs and spectrograms page.

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