[1] - Cramp and Simmons - The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol I - (1977) Oxford Univ. Press pp 17-28 (An introduction to bird voice study)

[2] - Jaffe - Spectrum Analysis Tutorial.Part 1/ Part 2 - Computer Music Journal Vol.11 n. 2/3 - (1987) - MIT Press (An introduction to the principles of digital spectrum analysis. This paper assumes no mathemathics beyond high school algebra, trigonometry and geometry.)

[3] - A Biologist's introduction to spectrum analysis - Laboratory of Ornithology - (1995) Cornell University (Excellent tutorial about sound spectral analysis. It provides some conceptual backgrounds for making and interpreting spectrograms. Found at:

[4] - Canary 1.2 User Manual / Appendix C - Sound Amplitude Measurements - (1995) Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (Summary of the relationships among sound power, sound intensity and sound pressure)

[5] - Digital Representation of Sound - Laboratory of Ornithology - (1995) Cornell University (Brief and clear explanation of how sound is represented digitally. Found at:

[6] - Techniques for audio recording vocalizations of tropical birds - G.F.Budney, R.W. Grotke - Library of Natural Sounds - Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology (A detailed survey of the recording techniques and materials referred to tropical bird study, but interesting also for all recordists)

[7] - Bird song recording: techniques & equipment - (2001) - Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology. (This article is very helpful for the proper selection of field recording equipment. It describes different types of recorders, microphones and accessories, discussing in deep advantages and disadvantages)

[8] - Lossy Audio Data Compression Effects - by Avisoft SAS Lab (An interesting demonstration of the distortion generated by different kinds of sound compression)

[9] - Avisoft SAS Lab Light (Free software for sound analysis and spectrogram generation. Avisoft sells also a commercial Pro version)

[10] - Raven (A powerful and full featured software for sound analysis, spectrogram generation and data collection. There are a free light version and a commercial one, by Cornell University)

[11] - Ishmael 1.0 (Sound acquisition program with call/signal recognition, file annotation)

[12] - Terry A.MR, Peake T.M & McGregor P.K - The role of vocal individuality in conservation - (2005) - Frontiers in Zoology 2, 10 (A deep review about the methods for extracting individuality information from vocalisations and techniques for using this to count and monitor populations over time)

[13] - F. Giusti - La Storia Naturale della Toscana Meridionale - (1993) - Pizzi Editore (A deep study about geography, geology, climate, water resources, vegetation and fauna of Southern Toscana)

[14] - Inventario Forestale della Toscana - (1999) - Regione Toscana (A complete analysis and data report about vegetation cover of Toscana - Italy)

[15] - Links to nature sound web sites (List of links about bird song recording and nature sound study from all over the World. Interesting page although there are some broken links.)

[16] - Catchpole C.K., Slater P.J.B. - Bird Song biological themes and variations - (1995) - Cambridge University Press (The book explores the study of bird song from the biological viewpoint and reviews the large volume of literature written on the subject. A lot of answers and new questions are inside this booklet!)

[17] - Macaulay Library sound and video archive (Free streaming of sound and video samples of animals from all over the world. There is a downloadable "plug in" which allows you to make your own spectrograms. Wonderful idea!)

[18] - Nature and photography web site (A very nice collection of pictures about birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects and flowers from Giacomo Radi - in italian)

[19] - Wallin N.L., Merker B. & Brown S. - The Origins of Music - (2000) - The MIT Press (This book is based on a workshop held in Florence in 1997 and gathers contributions about vocal communication in animals, music, language and human evolution, theories of music origin and universals in music. A very stimulating interdisciplinary approach.)

[20] - Kroodsma D. - The Singing Life of Birds - (2005) - Houghton Mifflin (A book about the art and science of listening to birdsong. A fascinating journey in the bioacoustic world.)

[21] - Marler P.& Slabbekoorn H. - Nature's Music. The science of birdsongs - (2004) - Elsevier Academic Press (The most up-to-date volume about the state of art in the avian bioacoustic field)

[22] - I.B.A.C. (The official website of the International Bioacoustic Council)

[23] - C.I.S.O. (The official website of the "Centro Italiano Studi Ornitologici". C.I.S.O. is a non profit association which aims at the promotion of ornithological research in Italy, working in connection with University Institutes, Natural History Museums, ornithological associations and non professional ornithologists.)

[24] - Avian Vocalisation Center (Global database of well documented, downloadable bird sounds in aid of environmental and ornithological research, conservation and education by Department of Zoology of Michigan State University - USA)

[25] - Bird Sounds (Bird sounds from Latvia recorded by Agris Celmins)

[26] - (Ornithological website devoted to study Waders and steppe birds in the coastal belt of central Italy by Massimo Biondi and Loris Pietrelli - in italian)

[27] - (An excellent website by Marco Pesente where you will find a lot of useful tips and suggestions about the recording technique, the equipment used and where to get it - in english and italian)

[28] - Sonogram (Free software for sound analysis and spectrogram generation by Cristoph Lauer)

return to top