Galerida cristata - Crested lark - Cappellaccia

cappellaccia3 (27K)

RECORDING 1
DATE/TIME: 9/march/2008 (9 a.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: The bird is flushed by myself. It calls in flight. Hilly zone with rough land and olive groves. - POSITION: Poderone near Magliano in Toscana, LAT.N 4236'/LONG.E 1117'- ALTITUDE: +130 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: flight calls - SEX/AGE: adult - COMMENT: Background Linnet calls (at 2"). Time interval between calls has been reduced (see also spectrogram). True interval: 5 s. - MIC: (P)

RECORDING 2
DATE/TIME: 6/june/2004 (8 a.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: After a playback session of a male full song, a cock approaches the loudspeakers and perches on the top of a big stone. Habitat: vineyards and cultivated fields (cereals) in a hilly district. - POSITION: Poderone near Magliano in Toscana, LAT.N 4236'/LONG.E 1117'- ALTITUDE: +130 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: Some different calls uttered when perched. - SEX/AGE: adult male - MIC: (A)

RECORDING 3
DATE/TIME: 16/march/2007 (5.30 p.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: One bird takes off from ground and begins singing in flight. Hills with uncultivated land. - POSITION: Poderone near Magliano in Toscana, LAT.N 4236'/LONG.E 1117'- ALTITUDE: +130 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: full song in flight (song flight). - SEX/AGE: adult male - COMMENT: Crested lark sings when perched, on gound and in flight. However the song flight is less common than in Skylark. Mimicry: 9" Kestrel call, 21" Swallow song. The audio sample and spectrograms represent a complete song bout. Background: Corn bunting song (3 song phrases). - MIC: (A)

RECORDING 4
DATE/TIME: 16/march/2007 (5.15 p.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: One bird is flushed by myself and calls in flight. Hills with rough land (same zone as Recording 3). - POSITION: Poderone near Magliano in Toscana, LAT.N 4236'/LONG.E 1117'- ALTITUDE: +130 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: whistling calls in flight. - SEX/AGE: unknown - COMMENT: calls of Crested lark are very variables and each bird has a broad call repertory. The calls of this individual are different from the example given above (see Recording 1), altough they are of the same type. Note that these calls are polysyllabic (see spectrograms and check also Recording 1). The second and third calls of this bird are identical (check spectrogram). Time interval between calls has been reduced. True average interval: 1.8 s (S.D.=0.9; n=4). Background: Corn bunting song. - MIC: (A)

RECORDING 5
DATE/TIME: 1/april/2005 (5.30 p.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: One bird is flying over a marsh (dried zone with small and irregular vegetal cover). After a brief low flight the bird lands. - POSITION: Diaccia Botrona marsh, LAT. N. 4245'/LONG. E 1054' - ALTITUDE: 0 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: 3 different call types uttered in flight. - SEX/AGE: unknown - COMMENT: this bird utters 5 whistling calls (same type as Recording 1 and Recording 4, but different in shape and number of syllables), 4 nasal chirping calls and 1 huit call. This last call is frequently used in flight and it is also uttered alone (check Recording 6 below). Time interval between calls has been slightly reduced. True average interval: 2.1 s (S.D.=0.6; n=6). Note that there is a sequence of three calls which is repeated two times. Background: Skylark song. - MIC: (A)

RECORDING 6
DATE/TIME: 17/february/2007 (4.30 p.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: A small flock of Crested larks is foraging in a rough land. Some birds take off and fly over the field, then they land again in the same place - POSITION: Poderone near Magliano in Toscana, LAT.N 4236'/LONG.E 1117'- ALTITUDE: +130 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: huit call in flight. - SEX/AGE: unknown - COMMENT: The recording refers to 2 or 3 different birds (see spectrograms). The huit call is uttered when the birds are flushed by myself or when they are patrolling the field in flight. Average time interval between calls: 1.1 s (S.D.=0.6; n=15). Background: Sparrow calls and barking dog. - MIC: (A)

RECORDING 7
DATE/TIME: 10/may/2010 (7 a.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: One bird fly off and sings. Zone with cultivated field near Osa river. - POSITION: S. Donato, Orbetello, LAT.N 4233'/LONG.E 1111'- ALTITUDE: +5 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: song flight. - SEX/AGE: adult male - COMMENT: Only two brief song phrases and then the bird lands on ground. Background: Zitting Cisticola. - MIC: (P)

RECORDING 8
DATE/TIME: 24/november/2010 (2.30 p.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: One bird fly off from an uncultivated land near a swamp. - POSITION: Near Diaccia Botrona marsh, LAT. N. 4245'/LONG. E 1054' - ALTITUDE: 0 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: flight calls. - SEX/AGE: unknown. - COMMENT: Two different call types. Background: Chaffinch calls. - MIC: (P)

RECORDING 9
DATE/TIME: 31/october/2014 (8 a.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: Two Crested Larks are flying above a swamp and call. - POSITION: Diaccia Botrona marsh, LAT. N. 4245'/LONG. E 1054' - ALTITUDE: 0 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: flight calls. - SEX/AGE: unknown. - COMMENT: The second Crested Lark is heard in background. - MIC: (P)

RECORDING 10
DATE/TIME: 14/march/2015 (4 p.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: Some Crested Larks are flying in a corral with cattles. Zone with cultivated fields, pastures and swamp near the Ombrone river. - POSITION: Trappola near Principina, LAT. N. 4241'/LONG. E 112' - ALTITUDE: 0 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: flight calls. - SEX/AGE: unknown. - COMMENT: Crested Larks in background. - MIC: (P)

RECORDING 11
DATE/TIME: 30/may/2015 (10 a.m.) - IDENTIFICATION AND BEHAVIOUR: One bird fly off from a cultivated field (wheat). Zone with cultivated fields, hedgerows and tree lines. - POSITION: Cernaia near Grosseto, LAT. N. 4241'/LONG. E 112' - ALTITUDE: 0 m. - VOCALIZATION TYPE: flight calls. - SEX/AGE: unknown. - COMMENT: I have flushed the bird. - MIC: (P)


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